On 8 February 1250, Louis lost his army at the Battle of Al Mansurah[19] and was captured by the Egyptians. He used his wealth to assist the Crusaders in rebuilding their defenses[21] and conducted diplomacy with the Islamic powers of Syria and Egypt. Louis IX (25 April 1214 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis or Louis the Saint, was King of France from 1226 to 1270, and the most illustrious of the Direct Capetians. His skill as a knight and engaging manner with the public made him popular, though contemporaries occasionally rebuked him as a "monk king". [28] The edict against the Talmud was eventually overturned by Gregory IX's successor, Innocent IV.[5]. [43] A similar order, the Sisters of St Louis, was founded in Juilly in 1842. Louis IX reformed the French legal process, creating a royal justice system in which petitioners could appeal judgements directly to the king. Plaque in the church, Collgiale Notre-Dame, Poissy, France. John (1246/1247 10 March 1248), died in infancy. He passed severe laws punishing blasphemy[4] and targeted France's Jews, including the burning of the Talmud after the Disputation of Paris. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Louis the Lion and Blanche of Castile,[7] and was baptized there in La Collgiale Notre-Dame church. Louis died at Tunis on 25 August 1270, in an epidemic of dysentery that swept through his army. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. He was crowned king within the month at Reims Cathedral. Louis's patronage of the arts inspired much innovation in Gothic art and architecture. In his spiritual testament he wrote, "My dearest son, you should permit yourself to be tormented by every kind of martyrdom before you would allow yourself to commit a mortal sin. [39] Charles and Philip II later dispersed a number of relics to promote Louis's veneration. Louis is believed to have ordered the production of the Morgan Bible and the Arsenal Bible, both deluxe illuminated manuscripts. His reign is often remembered as an economic and political golden age for the Kingdom of France during the Middle Ages. He was succeeded by his son Philip III. Address of St Louis King of France is 1609 Carrollton Ave, Metairie, LA 70005, USA. He chose Trinitarians as his chaplains and was accompanied by them on his crusades. After his release against ransom, he visited the Holy Land before returning to France. His mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom as regent until he reached maturity, and then remained his valued adviser until her death. The new queen's religious zeal made her a well-suited partner for the king, and they are attested to have gotten along well, enjoying riding together, reading, and listening to music. The letter outlined how Philip should follow the example of Jesus Christ in order to be a moral leader. The rate of confiscation of property from the Cathars and others reached its highest levels in the years before his first crusade and slowed upon his return to France in 1254. ", "Stock Photo - Rue Saint Louis in Pondicherry India", John de Joinville. [37] Louis was succeeded as King of France by his son, Philip III. [25], In a parliament held at Paris, 24 March 1267, Louis and his three sons "took the cross." Many died of dysentery, and on 25 August, Louis himself died.[21][26]. They became emissaries of Parisian models and styles elsewhere. [2][3] Despite his liberalizing legal reforms, Louis was a devout Christian and enforced strict Catholic orthodoxy. As an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of his realm's most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. 24 Feb. 2013", "The Letters of Eljigidei, Hulegu and Abaqa: Mongol overtures or Christian Ventriloquism? During the so-called "golden century of Saint Louis", the kingdom of France was at its height in Europe, both politically and economically. James in turn renounced his feudal overlordship over several counties in southern France, including Provence and Languedoc. In 1258, Louis and James I of Aragon signed the Treaty of Corbeil to end areas of contention between them. [18] During this time, the Ayyubid sultan died, and the sultan's wife Shajar al-Durr set in motion a shift in power that would make her Queen and eventually result in the rule of the Egyptian army of the Mamluks. Louis went on two crusades: the Seventh Crusade in 1248 and the Eighth Crusade in 1270. Louis's younger brother, Charles I of Naples, preserved his heart and intestines, and conveyed them for burial in the cathedral of Monreale near Palermo. [30] The letter is estimated to have been written in 1267, three years before Louis's death. [10][12], On 27 May 1234, Louis married Margaret of Provence (1221-1295); she was crowned in the cathedral of Sens the next day. Account of the first Crusade of Saint Louis from the perspective of the Arabs.

", "Art. His reputation for fairness and even saintliness was already well established while he was alive, and on many occasions he was chosen as an arbiter in quarrels among the rulers of Europe.[1]. The perception of Louis IX by his contemporaries as the exemplary Christian prince was reinforced by his religious zeal. In 1259 Louis signed the Treaty of Paris, by which Henry III of England was confirmed in his possession of territories in southwestern France, and Louis received the provinces of Anjou, Normandy (Normandie), Poitou, Maine, and Touraine.[10]. He commanded the largest army and ruled the largest and wealthiest kingdom, the European centre of arts and intellectual thought at the time. In 1250, Louis headed a crusade to Egypt and was taken prisoner. Memoirs of Louis IX, King of France. [10] Louis's mother instilled in him her devout Christianity. I love you, my dear son, as much as a mother can love her child; but I would rather see you dead at my feet than that you should ever commit a mortal sin. His younger brother Charles I of Sicily (122785) was created count of Anjou, thus founding the Capetian Angevin dynasty. [26][35][36] According to European custom, his body was subjected to the process known as mos Teutonicus prior to his remains being returned to France. 4. When he became king, over a hundred poor people were served meals in his house on ordinary days. 1609 Carrollton Ave, Metairie, LA 70005, USA, 7887 Walmsley Ave, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA, 600 Eleonore St, New Orleans, LA 70115, USA, 433 Avondale Garden Rd, Westwego, LA 70094, USA, 2823A Privateer Blvd, Barataria, LA 70036, USA, 3034 Andover St, Jefferson, LA 70121, USA, 1220 Felicity St, New Orleans, LA 70130, USA. Louis founded many hospitals and houses: the House of the Filles-Dieu for reformed prostitutes; the Quinze-Vingt for 300 blind men (1254), and hospitals at Pontoise, Vernon, and Compigne. "Crusades." For other uses, see. [13] Margaret was the sister of Eleanor of Provence, who later married Henry III of England. The Catholic Encyclopedia. [11] In these deeds, Louis IX tried to fulfill what he considered the duty of France as "the eldest daughter of the Church" (la fille ane de l'glise), a tradition of protector of the Church going back to the Franks and Charlemagne, who had been crowned by Pope Leo III in Rome in 800. Louis IX enjoyed immense prestige throughout European Christendom. Enguerrand demanded judgment by his peers and trial by battle, which the king refused because he thought it obsolete. [29], St. Louis installed a house of the Trinitarian Order at Fontainebleau, his chateau and estate near Paris. . The Sainte Chapelle, a prime example of the Rayonnant style of Gothic architecture, was erected as a shrine for what Louis believed to be the Crown of Thorns and a fragment of the True Cross, supposed precious relics of the Passion of Christ. [20], Following his release from Egyptian captivity, Louis spent four years in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, namely in Acre, Caesarea, and Jaffa. His admirers through the centuries have regarded Louis IX as the ideal Christian ruler. Louis was an extremely devout Catholic, and he built the Sainte-Chapelle ("Holy Chapel"),[1] located within the royal palace complex (now the Paris Hall of Justice), on the le de la Cit in the centre of Paris. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to end private wars, and introduced the presumption of innocence to criminal procedures. His mother, Blanche, ruled France as regent during his minority. For his contemporaries, he was the quintessential example of the Christian prince and embodied the whole of Christendom in his person. Louis also expanded the scope of the Inquisition in France. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and secured Capetian success in the Albigensian Crusade, which had started 20 years earlier. The style of his court was influential throughout Europe, both because of artwork purchased from Parisian masters for export, and by the marriage of the king's daughters and other female relatives to foreigners. During his first crusade in 1248, Louis was approached by envoys from Eljigidei, the Mongol military commander stationed in Armenia and Persia. [31], Louis and Margaret's two children who died in infancy were first buried at the Cistercian abbey of Royaumont. [4] The area most affected by this expansion was southern France, where the Cathar sect had been strongest. In 1259, Berke, the ruler of the Golden Horde, demanded the submission of Louis. Often the king served these guests himself. Enguerrand was tried, sentenced, and ordered to pay 12,000 livres. In 1243, Louis ordered the burning of 12,000 Talmudim, along with other important Jewish books and scripture. He participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis's life that resulted in his canonization in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. His grandfather on his father's side was Philip II, king of France; his grandfather on his mother's side was Alfonso VIII, king of Castile. He was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII. He was largely admired by fellow European rulers and was sometimes asked to arbitrate disputes outside of his kingdom.[1][2]. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus's 19th-century biography,[6] which he wrote using material from the papal inquest mentioned above. Part of the money was to pay for masses to be said in perpetuity for the souls of the men he had hanged. Joinville was a close friend, confidant, and counselor to the king. However, the march of Europeans from Damietta toward Cairo through the Nile River Delta went slowly. He acquired these in 123941 from Emperor Baldwin II of the Latin Empire of Constantinople by agreeing to pay off Baldwin's debt to the Venetian merchant Niccolo Quirino, for which Baldwin had pledged the Crown of Thorns as collateral. Raymond VI of Toulouse had been suspected of ordering the assassination of Pierre de Castelnau, a Roman Catholic preacher who attempted to convert the Cathars.[15]. A letter from Guy, a knight, concerning the capture of Damietta on the sixth Crusade with a speech delivered by Saint Louis to his men, Etext full version of the Memoirs of the Lord of Joinville, a biography of Saint Louis written by one of his knights, "Man of the Middle Ages, Saint Louis, King of France", Archdiocese of St. Louis, MO, Faceted Application of Subject Terminology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_IX_of_France&oldid=1096689289, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. [18] Louis also oversaw the Disputation of Paris in 1240, in which Paris's Jewish leaders were imprisoned and forced to admit to "anti-christian" passages in the Talmud, the major source of Jewish commentaries on the Bible and religious law. The crusaders, among whom was the English prince Edward Longshanks, landed at Carthage 17 July 1270, but disease broke out in the camp.

As a result of the disputation, Pope Gregory IX declared that all copies of the Talmud should be seized and destroyed. The seasonal rising of the Nile and the summer heat made it impossible for them to advance. Louis used these anti-usery laws to extract funds from Jewish and Lombard moneylenders, with the hopes that it would help pay for a future crusade. In the spring of 1254, he and his surviving army returned to France. Shortly before 1256, Enguerrand IV, Lord of Coucy, arrested and without trial hanged three young squires of Laon, whom he accused of poaching in his forest. In 1230, the King forbade all forms of usury, defined at the time as any taking of interest and therefore covering most banking activities. [22] Eljigidei suggested that King Louis should land in Egypt while Eljigidei attacked Baghdad, in order to prevent the Musliims of Egypt and Syria from joining forces. She is once recorded to have said:[11]. By this treaty, Louis renounced his feudal overlordship over the County of Barcelona and Roussillon, which was held by the King of Aragon. [16][17] This attack caused some disruption in the Muslim Ayyubid empire, especially as the current sultan, Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub, was on his deathbed. On hearing the reports of the missionaries, Louis resolved to land at Tunis, and he ordered his younger brother, Charles of Anjou, to join him there. Vol. [16], Louis exchanged multiple letters and emissaries with Mongol rulers of the period. Blanche (12 July/4 December 1240 29 April 1244), died in infancy. To enforce his new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs. [5] He is the only canonized king of France. His acts of charity, coupled with his devout religious practices, gave rise to the legend that he joined the Third Order of St. Francis, though it is unlikely that he ever actually joined the order.[8]. Louis annexed several provinces, notably parts of Aquitaine, Maine and Provence. [41], Named in his honour, the Sisters of Charity of St. Louis is a Roman Catholic religious order founded in Vannes, France, in 1803. "[11], Louis authored and sent the Enseignements, or teachings, to his son Philip III. [24] By contrast, Mongolian emperors Mngke and Khubilai's brother, the Ilkhan Hulegu, sent a letter to the king of France seeking his military assistance, but the letter never reached France. [1] She continued to have a strong influence on the king until her death in 1252. [23], Louis dispatched another envoy to the Mongol court, the Franciscan William of Rubruck, who visited the Great Khan Mngke (12511259) in Mongolia. [14], In 1229, when Louis was 15, his mother ended the Albigensian Crusade by signing an agreement with Raymond VII of Toulouse. Gyk died before the emissary arrived at his court, however, and Gyk's queen and now regent, Oghul Qaimish, turned down the diplomatic offer. [9], Louis was 12 years old when his father died on 8 November, 1226. [27] Louis IX paid the exorbitant sum of 135,000 livres to clear the debt. Chronicle, 1309, Saint Louis in Medieval History of Navarre, Site about The Saintonge War between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England. Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. "Our Father and Patron St. Louis / St. Louis, King of France, 12141270 AD", Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile, Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50141v.image, "Retour de l'ordre religieux ou signe de bonne sant de notre pluralisme lac? [18], The prestige and respect felt by Europeans for King Louis IX were due more to the appeal of his personality than to military domination. [8] He was nine years old when his grandfather Philip II died and his father became King Louis VIII. [38] Louis's bones were carried overland in a lengthy processional across Sicily, Italy, the Alps, and France, until they were interred in the royal necropolis at Saint-Denis in May 1271.