Any suspected person who could not clear himself was to be banished from the colony; a second offence carried a death penalty. The initial movement in Germany diversified, and other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zrich and John Calvin in Geneva. The Reformation is usually dated to 31 October 1517 in Wittenberg, Saxony, when Luther sent his Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to the Archbishop of Mainz. This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. They found this in the teaching of Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther. Following a brief Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary (15531558), a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth I, though this point is one of considerable debate among historians. But compared to the bloody and chaotic state of affairs in contemporary France, it was relatively successful, in part because Queen Elizabeth lived so long, until the Puritan Revolution or English Civil War in the seventeenth century. Under Edward VI the Church of England moved closer to continental Protestantism. , The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. , Word of the Protestant reformers reached Italy in the 1520s but never caught on. The presence of bishoprics made the adoption of Protestantism less likely.
In the early 16th century, Spain had a different political and cultural milieu from its Western and Central European neighbours in several respects, which affected the mentality and the reaction of the nation towards the Reformation. These courts came to known as "La Chambre Ardente" ("the fiery chamber") because of their reputation of meting out death penalties on burning gallows.. The two men could not come to any agreement due to their disputation over one key doctrine. Several publishing houses were opened in Lesser Poland in the mid-16th century in such locations as Somniki and Rakw. , The absence of Protestants, however, does not necessarily imply a failure of the Reformation. The Kingdom of Navarre, although by the time of the Protestant Reformation a minor principality territoriality restricted to southern France, had French Huguenot monarchs, including Henry IV of France and his mother, Jeanne III of Navarre, a devout Calvinist. After the establishment of the Geneva academy in 1559, Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, providing refuge for Protestant exiles from all over Europe and educating them as Calvinist missionaries. . Beyond the reach of the French kings in Geneva, Calvin continued to take an interest in the religious affairs of his native land including the training of ministers for congregations in France. After Habsburgs took control of the region, the Hussite churches were prohibited and the kingdom partially recatholicised.
 Charles V did not wish to see Spain or the rest of Habsburg Europe divided, and in light of continual threat from the Ottomans, preferred to see the Roman Catholic Church reform itself from within. The translation had a significant impact upon the Welsh population and helped to firmly establish Protestantism among the Welsh people.  The Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. Finally, in 1717, the Silent Sejm banned non-Catholics from becoming deputies of the Parliament. Greater entrepreneurship among religious minorities in Protestant states. Erasmus and Louis de Berquin who was martyred in 1529), sometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches. Hussites made up the vast majority of the population, forcing the Council of Basel to recognize in 1437 a system of two "religions" for the first time, signing the Compacts of Basel for the kingdom (Catholic and Czech Ultraquism a Hussite movement). In 1536, following his victory in the Count's War, he became king as Christian III and continued the Reformation of the state church with assistance from Johannes Bugenhagen.  However, there are a few popular interpretations. In general, the Reformers argued that salvation in Christianity was a completed status based on faith in Jesus alone and not a process that requires good works, as in the Catholic view. , The leaders of the Roman Catholic Church condemned him at the Council of Constance (14141417) and he was burnt at the stake, despite a promise of safe-conduct. The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II in 1559, which began a prolonged period of weakness for the French crown.
The Reformation was the start of Protestantism and the split of the Western Church into Protestantism and what is now the Roman Catholic Church. In the aftermath of the Swedish withdrawal and truce, attitudes throughout the nobility (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) turned against the Polish Brethren. The Reformation has been credited as a key factor in the formation of transnational advocacy movements. Its development was stopped by the Counter-Reformation, the Inquisition and also popular disinterest. Their ideas were studied in depth. Despite these wars against Protestant, Orthodox, and Muslim neighbours, the Confederation of Warsaw held with one notable exception. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the Pilgrims". Upon the arrival of the Protestant Reformation, Calvinism reached some Basques through the translation of the Bible into the Basque language by Joanes Leizarraga. Ultimately, since Calvin and Luther disagreed strongly on certain matters of theology (such as double-predestination and Holy Communion), the relationship between Lutherans and Calvinists was one of conflict. Luther's influence had already reached Iceland before King Christian's decree. Teter, Magda. The success of the Counter-Reformation on the Continent and the growth of a Puritan party dedicated to further Protestant reform polarised the Elizabethan Age, although it was not until the 1640s that England underwent religious strife comparable to what its neighbours had suffered some generations before. Catholics labeled self-identified Evangelicals "Lutherans" to discredit them after the practice of naming a heresy after its founder. It swept through the Bavarian, Thuringian and Swabian principalities, including the Black Company of Florian Geier, a knight from Giebelstadt who joined the peasants in the general outrage against the Catholic hierarchy. It was more of a movement among the German people between 1517 and 1525, and then also a political one beginning in 1525. The various groups had their own juridical systems. Greater political autonomy increased the likelihood that Protestantism would be adopted. The study argues that these social ties contributed more to the Reformation's early breakthroughs than the printing press. In 1620, the Battle of White Mountain defeated Protestants in Bohemia (now the Czech Republic) who sought to have the 1609 Letter of Majesty upheld.  A significant community in France remained in the Cvennes region. The presence of monasteries made the adoption of Protestantism less likely. , Despite significant diversity among the early Radical Reformers, some "repeating patterns" emerged among many Anabaptist groups. She finds, "in contemporary scholarship, the Reformation is now seen as a vast cultural upheaval, a social and popular movement, textured and rich because of its diversity. The Hussites were a Christian movement in the Kingdom of Bohemia following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus. Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists. Although this is generally considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics. However few copies of Calvin's writings were available before mid-19th century.. During the Thirty Years' War, Royal (Habsburg) Hungary joined the Catholic side, until Transylvania joined the Protestant side. However, in the city of Dublin the Reformation took hold under the auspices of George Browne, Archbishop of Dublin. The early Puritan movement (late 16th17th centuries) was Reformed (or Calvinist) and was a movement for reform in the Church of England. Each year drew new theologians to embrace the Reformation and participate in the ongoing, European-wide discussion about faith. They were permitted to sell their immovable property and take their movable property; however, it is still unknown whether they received fair-market value for their lands. . The veneration of some saints, certain pilgrimages and some pilgrim shrines were also attacked. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Two main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, were: The treaty also effectively ended the Papacy's pan-European political power. King Sigismund of Poland and Martin Luther: The Reformation before Confessionalization. After establishing a colony at Plymouth (which became part of the colony of Massachusetts) in 1620, the Puritan pilgrims received a charter from the King of England that legitimised their colony, allowing them to do trade and commerce with merchants in England, in accordance with the principles of mercantilism. . John Wycliffe questioned the privileged status of the clergy which had bolstered their powerful role in England and the luxury and pomp of local parishes and their ceremonies. The early Reformation in Germany mostly concerns the life of Martin Luther until he was excommunicated by Pope Leo X on 3 January 1521, in the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism on one hand and Catholicism on the other. As Queen of Navarre, Jeanne III commissioned the translation of the New Testament into Basque[d] and Barnese for the benefit of her subjects. The Augustinianism of the Reformers struggled against Pelagianism, a heresy that they perceived in the Catholic Church of their day.  Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428. Crisis and Reform: The Kyivan Metropolitanate, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and the Genesis of the Union of Brest. Protestants likely formed a majority of Hungary's population at the close of the 16th century, but Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted a majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. The most famous emigration to America was the migration of Puritan separatists from the Anglican Church of England. In 1666, the Sejm banned apostasy from Catholicism to any other religion, under penalty of death. He subsequently sponsored Maximos of Gallipoli's translation of the New Testament into the Modern Greek language and it was published in Geneva in 1638. European sovereigns, Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict. However, the Lutheran Church traditionally sees itself as the "main trunk of the historical Christian Tree" founded by Christ and the Apostles, holding that during the Reformation, the Church of Rome fell away. The English Parliament confirmed the King's supremacy over the Church in the Kingdom of England. These missionaries dispersed Calvinism widely, and formed the French Huguenots in Calvin's own lifetime and spread to Scotland under the leadership of John Knox in 1560.  He was the key figure of the Protestant Church of the Slovene Lands, as he was its founder and its first superintendent. Some Protestants left Italy and became outstanding activists of the European Reformation, mainly in the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth (e.g. Each state which turned Protestant had their own reformers who contributed towards the Evangelical faith. While in the middle of the 16th century the nobility mostly sent their sons abroad for education (the new German Protestant universities were important in this regard), by the mid-1600s the nobility mostly stayed home for education. In October another thirty were executed. On the eve of the Protestant Reformation, Christianity held the predominate position within the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and Catholicism received preferential treatment at the expense of the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox.  Frederick's son, Christian, was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. As the number of Protestants in France increased, the number of heretics in prisons awaiting trial also grew.  In 1534, the Act of Supremacy recognised Henry as "the only Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England". The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in both the Roman Catholic Church and the Magisterial Reformation. The Waldensian Church survived in the Western Alps through many persecutions and remains a Protestant church in Italy.. Evidence from the well-being effect of unemployment", 11370/edf4c610-0828-4ba7-b222-9ce36e3c58be, "Origins of growth: How state institutions forged during the Protestant Reformation drove development", "The Protestant Ethic and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Religious Minorities from the Former Holy Roman Empire", "Law and Revolution, II Harold J. Berman | Harvard University Press", "the religious roots of modern poverty policy: catholic, lutheran, and reformed protestant traditions compared", "Constitution Day 2021: Mixed Government, Bicameralism, and the Creation of the U.S. Senate", "Printing, Reformation and Information Control", "Printing and Protestants: An Empirical Test of the Role of Printing in the Reformation", "Wittenberg Influences on the Reformation in Scandinavia", "The Wittenberg Reformation as a Media Event", "The Reformation and 'The Disenchantment of the World' Reassessed", Internet Archive of Related Texts and Documents, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, An ecumenical official valuation by Lutherans and Catholics 500 years later, To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of ChristAgainst the Fanatics, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII 1942 consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Political influence of Evangelicalism in Latin America, Architecture of cathedrals and great churches, Faceted Application of Subject Terminology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reformation&oldid=1097312817, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2015, Pages using sidebar with the child parameter, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2021, Articles lacking reliable references from February 2014, Articles lacking reliable references from March 2015, Articles needing translation from German Wikipedia, Articles to be expanded from September 2021, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2021, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. The Habsburgs, who ruled Spain, Austria, the Crown of Bohemia, Hungary, Slovene Lands, the Spanish Netherlands and much of Germany and Italy, were staunch defenders of the Catholic Church. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Martin Luther, so some Protestants, such as Landmark Baptists, and the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, Petr Chelick, and Girolamo Savonarola. Upon his return to the country Kihn John Casimir crowned Mary a Queen of Poland. Where Protestant reformers enjoyed princely patronage, they were much more likely to succeed. Sascha O. Becker, Steven Pfaff and Jared Rubin. The Reformation in the Netherlands, unlike in many other countries, was not initiated by the rulers of the Seventeen Provinces, but instead by multiple popular movements which in turn were bolstered by the arrival of Protestant refugees from other parts of the continent. [b] Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. The Commonwealth was unique in Europe in the 16th century for its widespread tolerance confirmed by the Warsaw Confederation.  The following outcomes of the Reformation regarding human capital formation, the Protestant ethic, economic development, governance, and "dark" outcomes have been identified by scholars:, Margaret C. Jacob argues that there has been a dramatic shift in the historiography of the Reformation. Gudziak, Borys A. Four years later, at the Diet of Vsters, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. In 1417, two years after the execution of Jan Hus, the Czech reformation quickly became the chief force in the country. They drove the monks out and seized all their possessions, for which they were promptly excommunicated by gmundur. Elton, Geoffrey R. and Andrew Pettegree, eds. Numerous colleges and universities were set up throughout the country: the Jesuits and Piarists were important in this regard but there were contributions of other religious orders such as the Dominicans. Calvinism was popular among the Hungarians who inhabited the southernmost parts of what is now Slovakia. In the first decade of the Reformation, Luther's message became a movement, and the output of religious pamphlets in Germany was at its height. , Hus objected to some of the practices of the Roman Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to earlier practices: liturgy in the language of the people (i.e.  In 1538, when the kingly decree of the new Church ordinance reached Iceland, bishop gmundur and his clergy denounced it, threatening excommunication for anyone subscribing to the German "heresy". , The Reformation and Counter-Reformation era conflicts are termed the European wars of religion. The Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism. The study and practice of music was encouraged in Protestant-majority countries. Zwingli was a scholar and preacher who moved to Zrichthe then-leading city statein 1518, a year after Martin Luther began the Reformation in Germany with his Ninety-five Theses. Luxembourg, a part of the Spanish Netherlands, remained Catholic during the Reformation era because Protestantism was illegal until 1768.  Luther became so angry that he famously carved into the meeting table in chalk Hoc Est Corpus Meuma Biblical quotation from the Last Supper meaning "This is my body". Huge amounts of church land and property passed into the hands of the Crown and ultimately into those of the nobility and gentry. In the Ruthenian lands (predominately modern day Belarus & Ukraine) the Orthodox Church also undertook a similar strategy. The Reformation did not receive overt state support until 1525, although it was only due to the protection of Elector Frederick the Wise (who had a strange dream the night prior to 31 October 1517) that Luther survived after being declared an outlaw, in hiding at Wartburg Castle and then returning to Wittenberg. In particular, the Thirty Years' War (16181648) devastated much of Germany, killing between 25% and 40% of its entire population. Through German trade connections, many young Icelanders studied in Hamburg. In Table Talk, Luther describes it as a sudden realization. England had already given rise to the Lollard movement of John Wycliffe, which played an important part in inspiring the Hussites in Bohemia.  The Catholic House of Habsburg and its allies fought against the Protestant princes of Germany, supported at various times by Denmark, Sweden and France. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. Reformer Adolf Clarenbach was burned at the stake near Cologne in 1529. However, a number of factors complicated the adoption of the religious innovations in Ireland; the majority of the population there adhered to the Catholic Church. Under Philip II, conservatives in the Spanish church tightened their grip, and those who refused to recant such as Rodrigo de Valer were condemned to life imprisonment. Leaders of the Protestants included Mtys Dvai Br, Mihly Sztrai, Istvn Szegedi Kis, and Ferenc Dvid. Through their education, many nobles became appreciative of Catholicism or out-right converted. The spread of Protestantism in the country was assisted by its large ethnic German minority, which could understand and translate the writings of Martin Luther. This created resentment amongst the Protestant nobility; however, the country did not experience a religiously motivated civil war. Ten years later, in 1568, the Diet extended this freedom, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expulsion for his religion". Nowakowska, Natalia.  In 1526, Frederick forbade papal investiture of bishops in Denmark and in 1527 ordered fees from new bishops be paid to the crown, making Frederick the head of the church of Denmark. Molinism presented a soteriology similar to Protestants within the Roman Catholic Church. By 1541, the Irish Parliament had agreed to the change in status of the country from that of a Lordship to that of Kingdom of Ireland. Experts often speak of a gradual process of realization between 1514 and 1518. During the war with Sweden, when King John Casimir (Jan Kazimierz) fled to Silesia, the Icon of Mary of Czstochowa became the rallying point for military opposition to the Swedish forces. Bohemia later also elected two Protestant kings (George of Podbrady, Frederick of Palatine). His desire for an annulment of his marriage was known as the King's Great Matter. , Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest (or dissent) against the edict of the Diet of Speyer (1529), were the first individuals to be called Protestants. , Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible. The first two Lutheran martyrs were monks from Antwerp, Johann Esch and Heinrich Hoes, who were burned at the stake when they would not recant. The English Reformation followed a different course from the Reformation in continental Europe.  In 1539, the King sent a new governor to Iceland, Klaus von Mervitz, with a mandate to introduce reform and take possession of church property.