Log in to the database using Named or New credentials and then click Login. If you specify only the minimum required options for an RMAN command such as BACKUP DATABASE, then RMAN automatically determines the destination device, locations for backup output, and a backup tag based on your configured environment and built-in RMAN defaults. The COMPATIBLE parameter for the CDB must be set to 19.0 or higher. RMAN can back up application containers, application PDBs, and the application root. Transportable tablespaces do not have to be in read/write mode for backup as in previous releases. The Schedule Backup Wizard appears and displays the Pluggable Databases page. Views That Contain Metadata for Multisection Backups. About Sparse Backups for more information on sparse backups. Ensure that the prerequisites required for creating preplugin backups are met as described in. To back up a sparse PDB while connected to root: Start RMAN and connect to the root as a common user with the SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privilege as described in Connecting as Target to the Root.
The block change tracking feature for incremental backups improves backup performance by recording changed blocks for each data file. Primary and standby control file backups are interchangeable. PDB backups can be used to perform media recovery only if the backups include all the archived redo log files that contain changes for this PDB.
Accessing the Database Home Page Using Cloud Control. Also, unless the online redo log is archived at the end of the backup, DUPLICATE is not possible with the backup. You can back up one or more tablespaces containing sparse data files or individual sparse data files using the BACKUP command. When you connect to a PDB as a local user with SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege, you cannot back up or delete archived redo logs. You are performing your backups to some device over a network when reduced network bandwidth is more important than CPU usage. This approach backs up only a single PDB and enables you to use the same commands used for backing up non-CDBs. The BACKED UP clause is a convenient way to back up archived logs to a specified device type. Table 9-2 shows the effect of the script when it is run once per day starting on Monday. Note two important features: The BACKUP command in Example 9-15 does not always create a level 1 incremental backup. Start RMAN and connect to the root as a user with the SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege as described in Connecting as Target to the Root. One block change tracking file is created for the whole database. Table 9-3 shows the effect of the script when it is run once per day starting on Monday, January 1. When you specify a tag for image copies, the tag applies to each individual copy. Create a full image copy backup of a data file with a specified tag. Run the. In this case, you lose the contents of the existing block change tracking file. For a backup set, RMAN first creates a snapshot control file for read consistency. Optionally, you can remove PDBs from the table by clicking in the Select column for each PDB that you want to remove and then clicking Remove. The incremental level 1 backups to apply to those image copies are selected based upon the tag of the image copy data files and the available incremental level 1 backups. You can use the RMAN BACKUP INCREMENTAL FROM SCN command to create a backup on the primary database that starts at the current SCN of the standby database, which you can then use to roll forward the standby database. The following example backs up the tablespaces users and examples to the configured default device. After one day, the backup becomes obsolete, regardless of any configured backup retention policy. The application root has its own service name and you can connect to the application root in the same way that you connect to a PDB. Any backup of any database in the environment is usable for recovery of any other database if the backup is accessible.
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration to learn about archived redo log management with standby databases, Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference to learn about the CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY and DELETE ARCHIVELOG commands, Deleting RMAN Backups and Archived Redo Logs. If the compatibility parameter for CDBs and PDBs is set to 12.2 or higher, RMAN also enables you to perform sparse backups on your CDB and PDB. To back up archived logs, use the BACKUP ARCHIVELOG command. For example, you can back up the database on the first day of every year to satisfy a regulatory requirement and store the media off-site. The %U substitution variable, used to generate a unique string at this point in the file name, is required. Configure an archived redo log retention policy using the BACKED UP integer TIMES clause. A snapshot control file is not needed for an image copy. For a recovery window retention policy, either all of the copies of a backup set are obsolete, or none of them are. The BACKUP command creates the restore point named FY06Q4 to match the SCN at which point this backup is consistent. Thus, you can apply an incremental backup of a standby database to a primary database, or apply an incremental backup of a primary database to a standby database. Tags do not need to be unique, so multiple backup sets or image copies can have the same tag (for example, weekly_backup). SBT and disk backups are supported for BACKUP RECOVERY AREA. Backing Up the Root with Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, Backing Up PDBs with Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, Backing Up Tablespaces and Data Files in a PDB.
Start RMAN and connect to the target database (non-CDB) as a user with the, Ensure that the required prerequisites are met as described in, (Optional) Configure autobackups for the database control file and server parameter file as described in. When deciding how often to take level 0 backups, a general rule is to take a new level 0 backup whenever 20% or more of the data has changed. The following example generates a data file and archived log backup and creates a normal restore point. Oracle Database SQL Language Reference to learn about the ALTER DATABASE statement and the ALTER SYSTEM statement. Thus, you can use this command to create an incremental level 1 backup of a VSS shadow copy. If you enable backup optimization, then the BACKUP ARCHIVELOG command skips backing up files when an identical archived log has been backed up to the specified device type. When you disable block change tracking, the database removes the block change tracking file from the operating system. This example backs up the control file copy created in the previous example to tape: A snapshot control file is not needed when backing up a control file copy. To determine the number of backups for a file, RMAN only considers backups created on the same device type as the current backup. The primary purpose of RMAN backups is to protect your data. With DELETE INPUT, RMAN deletes only the specific copy of the archived log chosen for the backup set. RMAN enables you to back up a sparse database, using steps similar to backing up a whole database, in the backup set or image copy format. Back up any remaining archived logs generated during the backup. You can restore a backup of a control file made on one Data Guard database to any other database in the environment. Ensure that the target CDB is mounted or open. Complete the wizard by navigating the remainder of the pages to back up the PDBs. By incrementally updating backups, you can avoid the overhead of making full image copy backups of data files, while also minimizing time required for media recovery of your database. RMAN can restore this incremental forever and apply changes from the redo log. Mount the database and move the change tracking file to a location that has more space. Start RMAN and connect to a target database as a user with the SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privilege. This example uses BACKUP AS COPY to back up to disk as image copies. Use the BACKUP BACKUPSET command to copy backup sets from disk to tape. Use the SECTION SIZE clause of the BACKUP command to create multisection backups. You can also place the block change tracking file in any location that you choose, by specifying its name when enabling block change tracking. When backup sets are used, you can create multisection full or incremental backups. RMAN resynchronizes restore points with the recovery catalog and maintains the restore points while the backup exists. Use the BACKUP command with the KEEP option to make archival backups. For multisection backups, the MULTI_SECTION column contains YES. Connect to the sparse PDB as a, To back up a tablespace from a sparse PDB, connect to the selected PDB directly and then run the, To back up a data file from a sparse PDB, you can either connect to root or directly to the PDB. With DELETE ALL INPUT, RMAN deletes each backed-up archived redo log file from all log archiving destinations. You can specify the temporary status of the backup with the BACKUP KEEP UNTIL parameter. If you choose not to shut down the database, then execute the following SQL statements and skip all remaining steps: In this case you lose the contents of the block change tracking file. Moving backups from disk to tape and then freeing space on disk. You may want to exclude specified tablespaces from a whole database backup.
For a backup retention policy based on redundancy, a backup set is counted as one instance of a backup. RMAN automatically backs up the control file and the server parameter file (if the instance was started with a server parameter file) when data file 1 is included in the backup. If you specify an UNTIL TIME of 9:00 p.m, then the backup is obsolete at 9:01 p.m. The following command creates a preplugin backup of my_pdb, including the archived redo log files. As with the basic script in Example 9-15, you have fast recoverability to any point in time between the SCN of the data file copies and the present. You can then apply changes from the most recent incremental level 1 and the redo logs to reach the desired SCN. Start SQL*Plus and connect to a target database with administrator privileges. Afterward, you run the following backup: With failover, RMAN completes the backup, using logs 122 and 124 in /arch2. The primary reasons for making incremental backups part of your strategy are: Faster daily backups if block change tracking is enabled (see "Using Block Change Tracking to Improve Incremental Backup Performance"), Ability to roll forward data file image copies, thereby reducing recovery time and avoiding repeated full backups, Less bandwidth consumption when backing up over a network, Improved performance when the aggregate tape bandwidth for tape write I/Os is much less than the aggregate disk bandwidth for disk read I/Os, Possibility of recovering changes to objects created with the NOLOGGING option.
You can override this default with the AS COPY or AS BACKUPSET clauses. This enables you to perform media recovery after restoring this backup. In this strategy, you never have to apply more than a day of redo for complete recovery. A database copy exists, but SYSDATE-7 specifies a time before the base copy was created. Also, RMAN can automatically restore autobackups without the use of a recovery catalog. Therefore, the information in "About Archived Redo Log Failover" and "About Online Redo Log Switching" is applicable when you connect to the root. This chapter contains the following topics: Making and Updating RMAN Incremental Backups, Making Database Backups for Long-Term Storage, Backing Up the Database: Advanced Topics to learn about more advanced topics such as backup optimization, duplexing, backup encryption, and restartable backups, Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration to learn how to perform RMAN backup and recovery in a Data Guard environment. The command makes an incremental level 1 backup and assigns it the tag incr_update. The BACKUP NOT BACKED UP integer TIMES command specifies that RMAN backs up only those archived log files that have not been backed up at least integer times to the specified device. Archived logs are not needed for offline backups and so are not backed up. The command is best understood in a sample script that implements the strategy. Oracle recommends against using a raw device (that is, a disk without a file system) as a change tracking file.
You can exempt a backup from the retention policy by using the KEEP option with the BACKUP command. SKIP to skip inaccessible data files or data files that are in offline or read-only tablespaces. You can also use the KEEP and NOKEEP options of the CHANGE command to change the status of an existing backup. You can make a manual backup of the current control file either as a backup set or as an image copy. If you connect to the root, you can back up data files from multiple PDBs with a single command. Select the PDBs that you want to back up by following these steps: Click Add to display the Available Pluggable Databases page. Backing Up Sparse Tablespaces and Data Files with RMAN. The command makes an incremental level 1 backup and assigns it the tag incr_update. The following command backs up a non-CDB including all archived redo log files. The following command creates a multisection incremental backup of the entire database using image copies. For an Oracle RAC environment, it is 1/30,000 of the size of the database, times the number of enabled threads. RMAN uses a snapshot control file to ensure a read-consistent version. RMAN can create backups on disk as image copies or as backup sets. Direct load inserts do change data blocks, however, and these blocks are captured by incremental backups. Using Block Change Tracking to Improve Incremental Backup Performance. Block change tracking does not change the commands used to perform incremental backups. Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), RMAN supports multisection incremental backups. The level 1 incremental backup made yesterday is applied to the database copy, bringing the copy up to the checkpoint SCN of the level 1 incremental backup. The BACKUP command is used to back up one or more application PDBs. You set the default device with the CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE command. Use the BACKUP command to create incremental backups. For tablespaces and data files in CDB, you must connect to the root as a user with the.
To delete archived redo logs in a CDB after they are backed up: Start RMAN and connect to the root as a user with the SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege as described in Making Database Connections with RMAN. Table 9-1 Sample Archived Redo Log Records. In many cases, after your database has been configured in accordance with your backup strategy, you can back up the database by entering the following command at the RMAN prompt: RMAN uses the configured settings, the records of previous backups, and the control file record of the database structure to determine an efficient set of steps for the backup.
The V$BACKUP_DATAFILE and RC_BACKUP_DATAFILE views provide information about the number of blocks in each section of a multisection backup. For disk backups of the recovery files, you must use the TO DESTINATION option. Use the BACKUP command to back up an application container, which consists of the application root and all the application PDBs that belong to the application root. Note the following additional details about Example 9-15: Each time a data file is added to the database, an image copy of the new data file is created the next time the script runs.
Consider the eight-bitmap limit when developing your incremental backup strategy. Generate a report to see the effect of these copies under a redundancy-based backup retention policy. If you specify a small section size that would produce more than 256 sections, then RMAN increases the section size to a value that results in exactly 256 sections, Example 9-9 Multisection Backup of Data File as Image Copies.
Enabling and Disabling Block Change Tracking, Checking Whether Change Tracking Is Enabled, Changing the Location of the Block Change Tracking File. RMAN automatically backs up the current server parameter file in certain cases. If the control file autobackup feature is enabled, then RMAN makes two control file backups in these examples: the explicit backup of the files specified in the BACKUP command and the control file and server parameter file autobackup. For example, direct load inserts do not create redo log entries, so their changes cannot be reproduced with media recovery. If control file autobackup is enabled, then RMAN writes the current control file and server parameter file to a separate autobackup piece. In the target database, connect to SQL*Plus as a user with the, Export the RMAN backup metadata for the non-CDB into its data dictionary by using the, Start RMAN and connect to the root as a common user with the, If you have not logged in to the database previously, then the Database Login page is displayed. Multisection backups provide better performance by using multiple channels to back up large files in parallel. The archived redo log failover feature enables RMAN to complete a backup even when some archiving destinations are missing logs or contain logs with corrupt blocks. You can back up one or more tablespaces with the BACKUP TABLESPACE command or one or more data files with the BACKUP DATAFILE command. The recommended technique for restoring an archival backup is to use the DUPLICATE command. The following factors that may cause the file to be larger than this estimate suggests: To avoid the overhead of allocating space as your database grows, the block change tracking file size starts at 10 megabytes. As with full backups, RMAN can make incremental backups of an ARCHIVELOG mode database that is open. RMAN enables you to back up one or more PDBs in a CDB using the BACKUP command. Tags are stored in uppercase, regardless of the case used when entering them. The script shown in Example 9-14 puts the database into the correct mode for a consistent, whole database backup and then backs up the database.