The tennis players forearm is understood as a moment arm with the axis of rotation at the elbow, understanding that increasing the length of this moment arm (forearm length) can increase tangential speed [44, 45]. Ulbricht A, Fernandez-Fernandez J, Ferrauti A. Baiget E, Corbi F, Fuentes JP, Fernndez-Fernndez J. For more information please visit: No, Is the Subject Area "Stroke" applicable to this article? balm pout pinkgolftees Moreover, a decrease was observed in power, repeated-sprint ability, and shot accuracy in semi-professional male basketball players performing heavy RT, but this protocol performed 6 repetitions to failure [28]. Due to the fact that stroke accuracy data were not normally distributed, Friedmans test was used to examine the differences at various times during recovery.

The normality of the distributions and homogeneity of variances were assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test. This fact has been observed in tennis [16, 42] and dart throwing [43], though there is some controversy because it has also been observed a positive correlation between velocity and accuracy in tennis [44]. [24] and Terraza-Rebollo et al. What do each of our main speakers have in common: Love for tennis.

Impact of physical performance and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity in elite junior tennis players.

Anthropometric and fitness parameters are shown in Table 2. Rest duration was 1 minute between sets and 3 minutes between rounds. Professional level players showed higher values in all parameters (except in MBT shot put), although no statistically significant differences were found between level groups (p > .05).

CV: Coefficient of variation. Regarding handgrip strength, the results of this study found an association between handgrip and serve speed among national and all players groups (r = 0.896 and r = 0.618) although not among international level players (p > 0.05). Radar gun radar has a data recording frequency of 33 hz and measures with a speed range from 1 to 480 km/h ( 0.16 km/h). The MBT (simulating forehand and backhand strokes) has been used to measure strength in tennis players [34] showing a high correlation with trunk rotation and flexion strength [35] and the speed of forehand shot and backhand accuracy shot [36]. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, physical performance, and functional test with serve velocity regarding tennis players level and to design regression models that effectively predict serve velocity. An increasing serve speed reduces the time for the opponent to return the ball successfully and increases the probability of the servers superiority in the following game or of gaining a direct point [46]. On the contrary, a common belief among tennis players and coaches is that strength training could impair ball velocity and accuracy in their acute and delayed effects. Data analyses were performed using SPSS statistical software package (version 20.0; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Holding a 2-kg medicine ball (Fitness-MAD 2Kg, Evesham, United Kingdom), the players stood at a line facing the throwing direction with the feet side-by-side and slightly apart.

The relationship between maximum isometric strength and ball velocity in the tennis serve.

Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Sports" applicable to this article? Producing a high speed tennis serve requires a proper kinetic chain which involves sequential activation and coordination of different body parts (leg, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist) [16, 17]. Coaches should take into account that these results are exclusively for these training methods and 1RM was estimated. Of course, you will have their knowledge, experiences, successful cases achieved and much more from many of the top coaches in the world. Knee flexion before extension is a prerequisite for an efficient execution of the serve [18]. To perform shot put MTB, the ball was held on the palm of the dominant hand. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05, ranging for 0.603 to 0.932) was found between some anthropometrics measurements (body mass, height, arm, forearm, and leg segments), physical parameters (hand strength, countermovement jump) and functional test (medicine ball throw shot put and overhead) with serve velocity for all tennis players. Be part of WTC2!!

Furthermore, the sample only included male players, so it would be interesting to include female players as well as observe differences according to age and level.

Fifteen adult male tennis players (mean SD; age: 19.66 1.63 years) agreed to take part in this study. There was a significant correlation between body height and peak serve speed (r = 0.851), which follows the line of previous research in male junior [9, 12] and professional male and female tennis players [5, 13].

In the case of the RT protocol, Cardoso [1], Faigenbaum et al. According to these guidelines, the subjects performed 3 sets of 6 repetitions of the exercises shown in Table 2 with a 2 kg medicine ball. The significance level was set to p < 0.05. The distance was measured between the starting line and the point where the ball landed.

Bounce ball out of single court 0 points. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse whether anthropometric variables, physical performance and functional test are related to SV.

From a biomechanical point of view, serve is the most complex movement in tennis. The RFET itself had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

No, Is the Subject Area "Lobsters" applicable to this article? This disparity of results may be explained by the different training variables performed in the investigations such as volume, intensity, and rest duration. Avg. This could be due to the fact that take-off and landing of the feet during the serve is different among players, so it would not be correct to relate it to the height reached, but to the flight time [40]. Tennis serve has been described as the most potentially dominant stroke in the modern game [3, 4]. All these measures were obtained by trained and experienced evaluators, following the standardised techniques adopted by the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK) and Norton et al.

Effect sizes were interpreted for trained players (+ 10 years of experience) as follows [28]: Trivial (00.25), Small (0.250.50), Moderate (0.501.0), and Large (> 1.0). Cyril Genevois World Tennis Conference .

MB total volume was 144 repetitions in 24 sets, having a session total tonnage of 288 kg (21 sets counting only one side of a one-arm overhead forward throw). Players were classified according to their level of competition in two groups: professional level (PL) (n = 7; ranking = 300900 ATP Ranking) and national level (NL) (n = 8; ranking = 400900 Spanish National Ranking). The main limitations of the investigation were: that we investigated both genders together (it has been observed different acute effects in strength training by gender [18]); that there was a low reliability in the accuracy test; that the way to obtain 1RM was estimated; and that the volume of the strength training protocols were not equalized.

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Besides in the multiple linear regression analysis, the MBT shot put was the main variable of the predictive model, which explained 87% of SV (Table 4). Love to inpire others to transform themselves in the journey. Effects of Playing Surface (Hard and Clay Courts) on Heart Rate and Blood Lactate During Tennis Matches Played by High-Level Players, Correlation Analyses and Regression Modeling Between Isokinetic Testing and On-Court Performance in Competitive Adolescent Tennis Players, THE EFFECT OF RUBBER RESISTANCE EXERCISES ON BONE DENSITY AND SOME KINEMATIC VARIABLES OF THE FLAT SERVE SKILL IN TENNIS, The Swedish Journal of Scientific Research (SJSR). The main finding included a new functional movement through MBT shot put that explained 87% of SV. Make your part!! In addition, a second model with MBT shot put and forearm parameter explained 93% of service velocity for all players (r = 0.962, r2 = 0.925, p < 0.001).

The role of the forearm is involved in transmitting the segmental speed of the elbow extension and also, inside it is the muscles responsible for flexing the wrist with a high relationship with the SV [15].

Love for the other. After the ball was brought back behind their head with two hands, it was thrown forward as far as possible without moving the feet and crossing the line, to perform overhead MBT (Fig 1c).

No differences in anthropometrics and physical test were found between national and professional levels. Serve biomechanical requirements can be specifically analysed using an 8-stage model (star, release, loading, cocking, acceleration, contact, deceleration, and finish) [3]. To assess lower-limb explosive power, a double leg vertical CMJs without arm swing (i.e., with the hands on the hips) was performed on a contact time Optojump platform (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) according to established protocol [26]. Research has been conducted with junior [1, 912] and professional tennis players [13], using different isometric and dynamic strength tests with the aim of identifying the most influential factors on SV [14, 15]. Dominant handgrip strength test was performed in a standing position, with the elbow extended, and the arm positioned with the dynamometer parallel to the subjects side. Results of the multiple regression analysis explained 86% of SV, with MBT shot put showing the importance of using movement specific testing patterns when attempting to predict ball velocity during the service. In addition, it has been observed that expert players could have less fatigues detrimental effects on accuracy in tennis [40] and in table tennis [41] suggesting the theory of strategies to compensate for the fatigue effects [36, 41]. However, because of the serves great influence on match outcome, identifying specific predictors of SV could be a crucial aspect to design effective training programs [1]. De nombreux intervenants, des formats indits, des thmatiques varies rjoignez-nous pour une journe de partage entre coachs passionns! Following familiarization, anthropometry data were collected on all participants including height using a fixed stadiometer ( 0.1 cm; Seca 220, Hamburg, Germany), weight using a digital balance ( 0.1 kg; OK OPS 100, Ingolstadt, Germany), and length of body segments (arm, forearm, thigh and calf) using an anthropometer [23]. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, Europe PMC is an ELIXIR Core Data Resource.

In our investigation the subjects did not perform the repetitions to failure in order to properly perform strength training for young athletes [24], and the rest interval between sets was enough to avoid the excessive neuromuscular fatigue and to maintain the number of repetitions per set [24, 30]. Dossena F, Rossi C, LA Torre A, Bonato M. The role of lower limbs during tennis serve, A comparison of serve speed and motor coordination between elite and club level tennis players. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to examine the relationship between physical performance, anthropometric and functional test with SV regarding tennis players level and (2) to design regression models that effectively predict SV based on the relationship between these variables. The test session was performed in an outdoor synthetic tennis court (Green Set surface; temperature, 22.126.8C; relative humidity, 54.467.2%; Kestrel 4000 Pocket Weather Tracker, Nielsen Kellerman, Boothwyn, PA, USA), between 9:00 and 14:00 hours, 24 h after the last training session and 2 h post-prandial. personal data in order to function. The mean peak ball velocity and accuracy, effect size, mean change and percentage of changes of serve, forehand and backhand after the training protocols are shown in Table 3 for velocity and Table 4 for accuracy. Anthropometric measurements (body mass, height, body mass index and body segments) and physical test (hand strength, countermovement jump, jump on serve, and serve velocity) and functional test (medicine ball throw overhead and shot put) were performed. 1 Human Performance and Sports Science Laboratory, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain, 2 Department of Physical Activity and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Murcia, Spain, 3 Department of Musical, Plastic and Corporal Expression, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 4 National and International Tennis Coach (Level III), Madrid, Spain. Therefore, in spite of not measuring the RFD, muscle activity or the maximal voluntary contraction, it could be hypothesized that neuromuscular fatigue with no effect in ball velocity could have happened in this investigation, involving strategies to compensate the fatigue effects.

Kinetic energy in tennis serve is produced almost equally between the upper extremity and lower extremity throughout the motion [8].

To ensure standardization of test administration all tests were performed into the same order, using the same testing devices, measurement protocols and operators (Fig 2). Also, the diameter of the ball (6.5 cm) similar to an official tennis ball, would allow a throwing motion that involves several significant mechanical differences with serve movement [33] and there would be no need to push from the bottom up. Hernndez-Dav JL, Moreno FJ, Sanz-Rivas D, Hernndez-Dav H, Coves , Caballero C. Variations in kinematic variables and performance in the tennis serve according to age and skill level. To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds toupgrade your browser. In summary, the results presented demonstrate that some anthropometric parameters (body mass, height and arm, forearm and leg segments length) and physical performance measures (grip strength, CMJ and MBT) correlated positively with SV in professional tennis players.

In: Norton K, Olds T, editors. The results showed how the combination of physical and anthropometric factors have an impact on serve velocity. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. International Conference on Enhancing Skills in Physical Education and Sport Science 2020, DETERMINING CERVICAL DISC INJURY POTENTIAL IN MOTOR VEHICLE COLLISIONS, THE IMPACT OF BOXING EXPERIENCE ON SHOULDER INTERNAL ROTATOR MUSCLES CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC STRENGTH. Yes Are Anthropometric, Flexibility, Muscular Strength, and Endurance Variables Related To Clubhead Velocity in Low- And High-Handicap Golfers? Segment lengths. The protocol for the MB was designed following the guidelines of Cardoso [1], Fernndez-Fernndez et al. Love for overcoming each day and giving the best of you.

Love for helping others to be better in what they do. Continuous line: Serve trajectory; dot line: Forehand trajectory; dash line: Backhand trajectory. Can Laboratory-Based Tennis Profiles Predict Field Tests of Tennis Performance? BMI = body mass index; CMJ = countermovement jump; MBT = medicine ball throw; Results of the multiple regression analysis for anthropometric and fitness parameters depending on the level group are shown in Table 4. Pearson correlations analysis was used to detect potential confounders between fitness performance variables and SV among tennis players.

The wrist represents the final link of this kinetic chain, not creating the power, but transferring the final ball speed [14]. [12] guidelines were followed. This study was strengthened by the novelty of the sample (professional tennis players), multifaceted evaluation performed (anthropometric, power, strength and SV), and the use of a new designed test (MTB shot put) that can be recommended as a valid and reliable indicator for tennis SV. to watch entire line-up of speakers and thematic blocks.

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 23.0; SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Upper extremity physical factors affecting tennis serve velocity, Biomechanical analysis of the shoulder during tennis activities, Influence of restricted knee motion during the flat first serve in tennis, Lower-limb activity during the power serve in tennis: Effects of performance level. These results could suggest that RT causes a higher impairment in stroke performance and, as a consequence, it is important to be more careful when applying RT method, especially close to the competition. Similarly, during a tennis match, it has been shown technical impairments with no effect in serve velocity and accuracy [37] and both remaining stable during five-set professional matches on grass surface [38]. Anthropometric measurements (body mass, height, body mass index and body segments) and physical test (hand strength, countermovement jump, jump on serve, and serve velocity) and functional test (medicine ball throw overhead and shot put) were performed. A kinematic comparison of the overhand throw and tennis serve in tennis players: How similar are they really? There were no significant differences in ball velocity (MB serve: F3,27 = 1.076, p = 0.376, MB forehand: F3,27 = 1.451, p = 0.250; MB backhand: F3,27 = 1.633, p = 0.205; SC serve: F3,27 = 2.847, p = 0.056; SC forehand: F3,27 = 0.984, p = 0.415; SC backhand: F3,27 = 1.772, p = 0.176) (Table 3) and accuracy (MB serve: p = 0.633; MB forehand: p = 0.843; MB backhand: p = 0.530; SC serve: p = 0.300; SC forehand: p = 0.988; SC backhand: p = 0.651) (Table 4) following each time recovery (Post, Post24 and Post48), and for all strokes compared to the baseline in both training methods. Given the importance of the speed of the serve, finding exercises that give a greater transfer to the speed of this or anthropometric parameters of the players who achieve high service speeds, will help to improve sports training.

MBT: Medicine ball through. In: Di Giacomo G, Ellenbecker TS, Kibler WB, editors.

Regarding upper-body power tests, the medicine ball throw (MBT) overhead has been used as a possible predictor for SV [1, 10, 11]. Martin AD, Lindsay-Carter JE, Hendy KC, Malina RM. For professional level players, MBT shot put was the most important variable, which explains 68% of the predictor model (r = 0.825, r2 = 0.680, p < 0.001). Baseline shots, forehand (FH) and backhand (BH): FH1 or BH1 zone (1m*1m) 5 points; FH2 or BH2 zone (2m*2m) 4 points; FH3 or BH3 zone (3m*3m) 3 points; FH4 or BH4 zone (4m*4m) 2 points; rest of the single court 1 point. Cohen DB, Mont MA, Campbell KR, Vogelstein BN, Loewy JW. The magnitude of the differences in mean was quantified as effect size (ES) and interpreted according to the criteria used by Cohen [25]: 0.20 to 0.49 = small; 0.50 to 0.79 = moderate; or >0.79 = large.

An isokinetic profile of trunk rotation strength in elite tennis players.

Regarding practical applications, it could be suggested that these two strength training methods (RT at 75% 1RM and 2 kg MB) might be useful to train the maximum and explosive strength [1, 12] without ball velocity and accuracy decrease and could be used before a technical-tactical session on-court or off-season, and in-season.